born in early 1800’s in New Orleans
Congo Square was a place that slaves were made to dance every Sunday
African and Caribbean make up jazz culture
also from the Baptist church, Creole musician were classically trained. Some even had their own slaves
Menstral music blacks and whites painted black. It was like early TV.
Daddy Rice first to do menstral music, he had a hit and he named it Jim Crow
Black piano players created Ragtime music. With a syncopated rhyme thats off beat.
Blues: finding meaning for menstracy.
Form of the blues: 3 chord with 12 bars
Creole and blacks were seen in the same light, so creole started playing with black musician. The Creole players brought the technical structure for music. Creole is a person from the Caribbean.
Roaring 20’s produce a lot of dancing music.
Blue Devil, Clouds of Joy
Put more focus on independent singers such as Ethel Waters, Duke , and Louis for example
Roseland most popular dance room in NY
1925 Louis Armstrong quits fletcher Henderson’s band
Scatting started with Heebie Jeebies, the music fell off the stand and louis started improving.
Back Water Blues. Bessie Smith…She was the impress of the Blues.
First black women singer to be in film.
Black Swan was the first record company. Black artist and owners
Singing the Blue…Frankie Trombuaer
DVD # 4
1929 stock market crashed
Swing (Big Band), Bennie Goodman
1932 Jobless men rates rose.
Music was free. And you could hear a variety of it.
Savoy Ballroom had two bands, popular with dancers.
Louis was relative unknown by white people.
Louis moved from Chicago back to New York to be a solo artist. (Rockwell)
Dutch played all black people bar call Hot Chocolate.
Louis was the father of singing
1917 Lucille, Frankie, Lindy Hop
Chic Web a drummer at the Savoy Ballroom. He had TB (tuberculosis disease) of the spine.
Listening to music help to ease the pain from the depression.
Duke Ellington- Elegance grace, style, Most popular band leader
1930 he and the band went to Hollywood to do a comedy called "Check and double Check” played by Amos and Andy.
Sugar Hill is where he moved his mom.
Mayor of Harlem was Thomas “Fats" Waller.
Stride bass note chord.
Sugar Foot Stomp - Fletcher Henderson - playing two to the bar (playing two notes per bar) 1 and 3.
East St. Louis Toodle- Oo Duke Ellington: Duke Ellington & His Washingtonians
Mood Indigo - Jungle Band
Big Band no vocals 19 pieces- 5 trumpets, 5 trombones, 5 saxophones (woodwind), 4 rhythm, piano, bass, drums
Big band is an American invention, Fletcher Henderson - Big Band Swing
Roseland (bar) was all white people no black people
The Savoy ballroom (bar) was integrated in New York
John Hammond was not a musician, rich. Loved Jazz. He would hire unknown musicians.
Billy Rose wanted a white dance band for the late-night dance show and Benny Goodman had no job so he Bought music from Fletcher Henderson.
Benny Goodman's drummer Gene Krupa. ‘Sing sing sing’ was a song they did.
Book of sheet music… for the radio station. Fake Book has melody and chords
Art Tatum: had a memory for music and had perfect pitch. He was the invisible man of Jazz.
1935 in L.A.
Benny’s band started playing behind metal net (chicken wire) because the crowd would drink then start throwing bottles.
King of Swing – benny goodman, tunes were 1st, 2nd, and 3rd
Tommy Dorsey - task master. Frank Sinatra sang with Tommy.
Glen Miller popularized Jazz further. String of Pearls, In the Mood - swing songs
Artie Shaw, Benny’s greatest opponent or rival. 1939 he disbanded his orchestra because of financial issues.
Billy Holiday - King of the Matinees (doing the day)
Jazz swing was the popular dance music of its time. The Swing Orchestrate Louis Armstrong. He had a lot of influences on Jazz.
Jazz now became swing and it rescued the recording industry. Sell went from 6 million to 50 million records a year
Lindy Hop became the jitter bug ( a type of dancer). Started playing in Time Square
Joe Glazer was tough, and he was Louis Armstrong’s manager for the next 30 years
A Rhapsody in Blue was Louis Armstrong first movie. He is in Heaven playing
John Hammond: Swing Took jazz to another level. It was very commercial.
Kansas City radio station was playing Count Basie. Count Basie Swing music.
1937 – 1939: 1937 Great Depression
some band members made 15k a week
Billie Holiday. She called him Daddy Basie.
Ella Fitzgerald: Homeless in NY. Danced for a living. She was also a lookout. Went to the Apollo Theater where she won.
Count Basie, Stomp was the music he learned how to play from Kansas City.
Born 1904. Mother did laundry to pay for piano lessons. Took lessons from Fats Waller.
Basie - Heart of his band was the rhythm sections.
1 o’clock jump was his most popular song. No music was written down. A head charts. Memorize and played them on the spot.
The Saxophone became the popular instrument of the late 1930’s
Coleman Hawkins changed the saxophone, Played with Fletcher Henderson band at 18.
Bean test. Was something he did to test new musicians, who thought they were good players
Lester Young from Mississippi): was Coleman Hawkin’s greatest rival. He played for "the Blue Devils” and was a fan of Frankie Trumbauer.
Lester held the saxophone sides ways when he played. Lester headed west to Kansas City by cargo train.
Kansas City was called "the territory”. It flourished even during the depression.
Mary Lou Williams played piano in Kansas city
A Whore in Church: Swing music in Carnegie Hall. Gene Krupa saved the band.
Chic Webb needed a pretty woman singer. Ella Fitzgerald was hired. 1937 she won the number female award beating Billie Holiday.
Chic Webb died at 30 years old.
The Ray. The ray is the look that Benny Goodman would give his band members.
Charlie Christian was on jazz guitar.
Strange Fruit: A song about hanging black people by Billie Holiday.
A reason for Living: A french poet said this
New York had an outdoor concert, a carnival of swing.
1939 Duke Ellington went on tour in Europe where he was very popular.
Copa: Body and Soul was recorded by Coleman Hawkins.
Dizzie Gillespie and Charlie Parker
War Time: Louis Armstrong was forty years old doing the war.
The Streets: 1943 Savoy ballroom had closed. Because blacks and whites went home together.
Race riots began to start, it was the beginning of segregation.
The street became the stage
Charlie Parker was 34 when he died. Looked like he was 50 or 60 years old.
Bird Lives is a slogan left after Charlie Parker died.
Miles Davis liked Sugar Ray Robinson. 1954 Davis decided to get clean.
Miles played trumpet
Groovin’ High - Dizzy Gillespie Sextet High trumpet sound.
Kenny Clark - first bebop drummer
Music pattern – AABA - form 64 bars
DVD# 9 -1956 -1960
Louis Armstrong lends his voice to the movement of Civil Rights.
Mile Davis becomes most popular musician.
Sonny Rollins, John Coltrane, Arnet Coleman launch the Avant-Gard movement.
John Coltrane…. Died for each other while playing. they were that committed to each other.
Ray Charles. Combined blues with jazz. “I got a woman” his music became known as Soul
Sonny Rollins was a saxophone player: song called "Saint Thomas”.
Max Roach (drummer) work with Sonny Rollins…. Saxophone Colossus was his biggest album
Poly Rhythm - more than one rhythm.
Duke Ellington preform Diminuendo and Crescendo in Blue in the Hampton’s. People stop leaving after this. They did fourth encores.
Once through the form, 27 choruses, playing a solo forever, this concert brought them out of their poor life.
John Coltrane incorporated time and space into his music. Something he got from other people. (The lonious Monk). Playing Love songs.
Columbia Records signed Miles Davis. He made four records in two days. He wanted to fulfill his contract obligations.
Cocktail with swing and romantic music.
Clifford Brown played the trumpet. Gets there an hour early to tune the horn and get his mind ready. Good clean living.
He was available to the young kids as a mentor.
Clifford Brown played with Max Roach
Sarah Vaughn had a great range. She played the piano also. Everyone called her “Sassy”
Art Blakey was the drummer for the Messengers who wanted to bring back dance music. It was his lives work.
Louis Armstrong saw Little Rock Arkansas segregation.
No other Jazz musician spoke out about the racism. They started protesting Louis Armstrong
1st chair is the leader of that section
The Messengers, Birdland
Art Blakey Drummer for the Jazz messengers
Made it his life work to bring back the audience that was lost to Rhythm in Blues
1955 Horace Silver and Art Blakey establish a quintet called The Jazz Messengers (Hard Bop)
“Jazz washes the Dust away from everyday life”. Art Blakey
March 15th 1959 Lester Young died.
July 17th 1959 Billie Holiday died at 44.
Miles Davis and Gilbert had three great albums with orchestra setting. Sketches of Spain and Pokey and Bess, Miles Ahead
He was the highest paid Jazz player. He lived like a rich man.
"Kind of Blue" was the bestselling album ever
Ornette Coleman (saxophone player) started playing free music. Improvising in a new way.
1959 he started playing in NYC at the Five Spot.
Lenard Bernstein was on stage while the bassist played.
John Coltrane played with Coleman.