CAUSES: DEMOGRAPHY:Population growth (Emigration; America, Africa, Australia). /Economy. ECONOMIC:Search for new markets: to get raw materials/to sell them manifactures products./Thanks to the transport revolution(steam ships)./POLITICS: Developed countries looked for dominance (expansionist policies).
CONFERENCE OF BERLIN:Before 1885, one powerful country could occupy new territory and simply say "this belong to us now!".
After 1884, countries had to agree to the principle of "effective occupation", This meant that they had to administer the country,not just possess it./Africa was divided by up mainly between Great Britain and France./This was supposed to reduce the possibilities of counflict over colonial
territories/Holding the conference in Germany gave exra status to Bismarck. It gave him (and Germany) a very high profile-which is what he wanted.
CONSEQUENCES OF COLONIALISM:Except for Australia,New Zealand, and Canada.(Colonies which were used to reduce the demographic pressure on Britain).
DEMOGRAPHIC CONSEQUENCES:Growth due to medical advances. ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES:Single-crop agricultures serving the colonial power's domestic needs. No industrialisation: the colonies merely provided markets. Mining.
CULTURAL CONSEQUENCES:Imposition of European languages,religion and customs.
POLITICAL CONSEQUENCES: Artificial borders.
SOCIAL CONSEQUENCES: destruction of ethnic structures.
WWI: Tension factors: PATRIOTISM: people are deeply patriotic and wanted their country to be the best.
,Britain, were building up lots of warships.
, the situation in Europe was tense. Secret alliances and the desire to grow empires had built up a dangerous"climate of war
KAISER:Germany had become very strong and its rivals were suspicious of their ruler, Wilhem I.
COLONIAL EMPIRES:some European countries, such as France and Britain, had created large worldwide empires and had become rich. Other European countries such as Russia and Germany, wanted to createdtheir own vast empires.This caused competition and conflict between many of the countries throughout the world.
in the years before the war, the nations of Europe were constantly making alliances. Germ made alliance
with Austria-Hungary and Italy in 1881(triple
THE OUTBREAK OF THE WAR(THE SPARK)
:In 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, was assassinated in sarajevo by a serbian nationalist student. Aust-Hun declared war on serbia and serbia was supported by the Triple Entente
. Austria was supported by the Triple Alliance.
PHASES OF THE WAR: 1. MOVEMENT PHASE (1914): Germ attack Belgium according to the plans prepared before, but: The belgian army slowned them down/the british helped them/the russians attacked germany from the east. 2. TRENCH WARFARE(1915-16): both sides dug trenches. The trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to Swatizerland. The land between the two sides was called "no man's land". 3. FINAL PHASE (1917-18): two decisive events: in october a revolution took place in Rusia and the new government signed a treaty with Germany and pulled out the war./ The usa joined the british and the french. The USA joined the war because U-boats were sinking their supply ships.