Thermal energy: is the energy a body has due to the movement of its particles. Temperature: is a physical magnitude which measures the termal energy, that is, The movement of a body’s particles-SI: KELVIN . The CELSIUS: is more generally Used. Heat: is the termal energy in transit. This process is carried out Naturally between two material systems which are at different temperaturas-SI: JOULES-Calories. 1cal=4,18J 1J= 0,24 Cal.Two bodies A and B, have thermal equilibrium when both are at the same temperature.
Phsycial Changes------ Temperature variation: normally the temperatura of a body Increases when it gains heat and decreases when it loses heat-----Changes of State: when a change of state occurs the temperatura of a material system Remains constant---Dimension variation: when a body or material system Exchanges heat with is surroundings, its dimensions change: it expands or Contracts.-----------------------------------------Chemical changes: la Naturaleza de sustancia si cambia. Ejemplo combustión.---------------------------------Conduction: This is the way heat is conducted in solid. In this process matter is not Transported. Convection: this is the way Heat is conducted in fluids. In this process matter is transported: the Molecules move, creating convection currents. Radiation: this is the way heat Is conducted in a vacuum.
Thermal Conductor: is a material which heat flows through easily, from one side to the Other. Thermal insulator is a material Which heat does not flow through easily. Thermal machines: is a type of Machine which changes thermal energy into a different type of energy, generally Mechanical energy. (Fuel: store chemical energy inside them. The fuel is burnt Inside part of the engine chemical energy changes into thermal energy. –Internal Combustión engine: the fuel is burnt inside part of the engine called the Cylinder.-Steam engine: the fuel is burnt outside the machine. THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION: The first steam engine was built by the Scottish engineer J. Watt In 1768.S.Xviii and xix, and it began in England.