To sort the diversity of life using a rating system. Kingdom, phylum. sub class, super, order, sub groups, sub, genus, species, sub. Hierarchical binomial nomenclature, the greater the taxa categories. To reconstruct the phylogeny of a group uses a character that varies among members (ancestral character.) Is also used to compare outgroup (outgroup ) This is phylogenetically close, but not part of the study group. For any phylogenetic reconstruction we need to consider the characters that we use in our analysis and determine which is the primitive condition that presents the common ancestor of several. In this sense, we use the apomorphies that
refer to a derived or specialized character. In contrast, plesiomorphic, is a primitive character. Autopomorfía is a unique specialization in one group and a synapomorphy is a specialized two or more groups. simplesioformia is a primitive character shared. All these terms can be defined in relation to any taxonomic level. Thus, the presence of a autopomorfía hemipenes in scales and a synapomorphy in Lacerta and snakes. Among the reptiles is a primitive character or simplesiomorfo. Qualifying School: Evolutionary (It is the oldest and subjective. The characters have different populations indicate common ancestors, so you might try setting that establishes a tree. It has been studying the homology, but taking into account the possible convergence evolution. The researcher chooses which characters are importantes.La presence of a single common character may be sufficient for the school to establish a new taxon) phenetic (It is a value equal to all the characters studied caracteres.Se counterparts, and others there is no evidence that they are. Only analogías.Cuantos ignore more characters are studied, possibly minor homólogos.Se have the trees be set to indicate the evolutionary closeness. cladistic (only the characters are studied counterparts, and if you have questions will be studied to see if the character is
counterpart. If you still do not know for sure you will abandon the character. It will follow a program so that at the end, you will get differenttrees, which also indicate a number
of steps, with the right which has fewer steps, ie, maximum parsimony, since evolution is always going forward. Species group of stocks that can be played with each other and that are genetically isolated from other groups for reproductive isolation mechanisms, such as hybrid sterility or acceptance of male to females. Protoctista: There are animals, as such, in this kingdom combine all eukaryotic unicellular animals, algae and slime molds. It is a paraphyletic group. They are eukaryotic organisms that have certain special phones. Embrionario.No development have not have seeds, and most are unicellular esporas.La have, but there are even colonias.Nunca are multicellular tissues, but the case of multicellular organisms. All cells are totipotent, and although a specialization that does not entail a change in organizational structure protoplásmico.La celular.Nivel Most are free living, but some are sessile. They are grouped by the characteristic of eukaryotic cells without tissue. Have now been split into the ancestors of many reinos.Son other kingdoms: animal ,...; but they are independently. Depending on your metabolism can distinguish between: Protofitos: These are bodies performing fotosíntesis.Antes vegetables were considered authentic Protozoa: quimiorganotrofos are organisms, that is what they feed on animals produce otros.Antes were right. Pseudohongos: These are organisms that have an affinity with hongos.Son saprofíticos.Antes quimiorganotrofos bodies were vegetables. They live in fresh water-salt, soil, decaying matter, plants. Symbiosis of all kinds, water pollution, are the plankton, cause disease, important in the food chain. They may live alone or false form colonies, joining several agencies, but without losing the totipotencia.También there are actual colonies that form, which can lead to division of labor among individuals, taking care of one reproduction and other small organisms no.Son between 10 and 15? meters
-There are more than 64,000 species polynuclear diferentes.Pueden be bodies, and in that case they are called Polinérgides, since each core has a domain called sinérgide, which does not interact with other fossil record sinérgides.Existen for 100 million years. They have great importance económica.Cerca of 10000 species live as symbionts in animals or plants, and some even in other mutualistic relationship can be protozoos.La, commensalism or parasitism. Structure: As cells have many similarities with the animals. Cell membrane is a typical double lipid membrane, which can shape the outside organismo.En can find organic or inorganic substances, which can create the skeleton of the body and give substance depend on the protozoan forma.Las: Flagellates cellulose. Rhizopods : chitin, silica or carbonate can form expansions cálcico.Otros made of thorns, spikes.The interior of the membrane can find several substances that give strength and known as corteza.Si lack these structures, the protozoa will be asymmetric. Cytoplasm (Ectoplasm-endoplasm), Nucleus (binuclear), Golgi, mitochondria, vacuoles (abundant), cilia and flagella. Locomotion (pseudopods, cilia, flagella). Metabolism: autotrophic, heterotrophic. Excretion (vacuole sifusión), breathing (diffusion). Reproduction (sexual conjugation. Asexual: binary fission, mitosis) Kingdom Protista Phylum SUB KINGDOM PROTOZOA Subphylum Sarcomastigophora Phytomastigophora Class Class Zoomastigophora Mastigophora
Phylum Subphylum Sarcodina Opalinata LABYRINTHOMORPHA Subphylum Phylum Microspora phylum Apicomplexa phylum phylum Ciliophora ASCETOSPORA.
Multicellular organisms: Mesozoa (single phylum) Parazoa (phylum Porifera, sponges and placozoa) Eumetazoa (other phyla.) Biological Contributions: 1. Although the most simple organization of all metazoa, these groups actually make up a higher level of morphological and physiological integration compared to the protozoan colonies. Mesozoa already belongs to the level of organization celular.2. The Mesozoic, are composed of an outer layer of somatic cells and a layer of internal reproductive cells. The Mesozoic are
parásitos.3 all. The Placozoas are composed of two epithelia with fluid and some cells between estos.4 fibrous. Sponges (Porifera) are more complex with several types of differentiated cells by function. Some of which are organized into tissues emerging from a low of integración.5. Development patterns of these three phyla and embryonic stages are not homologous to those of Eumetazoa.6. Sponges have developed a unique stream of water which provides them with food and oxygen. Origin of metazoans (Theory syncytial virus (syncytial arise from a ciliate in which cell boundaries were developed. It was like Plathelmintes bilateral forms. Favor: superficial.Contra boca.Ciliación Tamaño.Forma.Simetría.Situación the differences between ciliates and flatworms flatworms acelos.Desarrollo Interior embryonic cell complex, not syncytial.) colonial theory (arising from colonial flagellated cells with more specialized and independientes.Son polyphyletic and evolved independently several ancestral groups) Phylum placozoa (one species, marine animal 2 to 3mm . internal digestion, the phylum cnidaria sister group) Mesozoa (parasites of marine invertebrates. 0.5 to 7mm with 20-30 cells in two layers) Porifera (a loosely organized multicellular between células.Poros (ostiole) cameras for the passage of agua.Simetría radiated or without symmetry
Pinacocitos epidermis, internal cavities with choanocytes; Mesogloae with amebocyte and skeletal elements and colágeno.Digestión esqueléticos.Espongina with osmoregulation by difusión.Sésiles.Reproducción intracelular.Excreción and asexual) cell types in sponges (Pinacocitos: outer covering. Choanocytes. Arqueocitos). Physiology of sponges (filter feeders, food (detritus, plankton, bacteria) intracellular digestion) Types of skeletons (collagen fibers, spongin, spicules).Reproduction (anfiblastula (larva hollow investment) parenquimula (larva solid, it sits). Classification of sponges (Kingdom Animalia, sub Parazoa, phylum Porifera, class calcarea (spicules limestone, marine asconoides) Hexactinellida (spicules of silica body cylindrical, marine), Demospongiae (spicules of silica leuconoides, almost all marine). phylum cnidaria (Symmetry or birradial.Organización tissue (without bodies) 2 (3) germ layers: ectoderm, endoderm
(Mesoderm derived from ectoderm) mesoglea (middle layer of mucosaccharidos and proteins). Cavity gastrovascular with gastrodermis and extracellular digestion and intracelular.Tentáculos.Plexo nervous protoneuronas (without central nervous system). Sense organs (statocysts, ocelli). Muscular contractions or palettes natatory (ctenophores). Polymorphism (states polyp medusa). Nematocysts (organs stinging) and coloblastes (accession). Marine habitats and water dulce.Zonas shallow and few species in high
profundidades.Mas diversity den waters cálidas.Constructores reef e islas.Simbiosis other animals and algas.Animales eaters corals use Nematocysts for own defense. Locomotion (contraction of the body, tentaculos.deslizamiento on disk basal.flotar with a gas bubble) Food (small crustaceans, hunt with tentacles, mouth, sliding over the dam, digestion in the cavity vascular) Reproduction (AsexualEvaginaciones buds. Sexual | fertilization of ovaries sperm discharges into water) Classes hydrozoans (marine colonial) scyphozoans (jellyfish common), Cubozoa, Anthozoa (corals and sea anemones). Phylum Ctenophora (Symmetry birradial.Peines (paddles swim) arranged laterally to nadar.Triblásticos with ectoderm, endoderm and mesogloea with scattered cells and fibers musculares.Celulas adhesive (coloblastos). Plexus nerve subepidermal and sensory organ aboral.Monoicos; gonads in parts channels digestivos.Larva diploid with direct development bioluminescence) Digestive system (mouth pharynx stomach series channels pores anal) Habitat (warm waters, surface deepwater) Class tentaculata, nuda.